Great Lakes water levels are continuously monitored by U.S. and Canadian federal agencies in the region through a binational partnership. NOAA-GLERL relies on this water level data to conduct research on components of the regional water budget and to improve predictive models. Water level monitoring stations are operated by NOAA's Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans' Canadian Hydrographic Service. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Detroit, Chicago, Buffalo) and Environment and Climate Change Canada play crucial roles in research, coordination of data and operational seasonal water level forecasts for the basin.
For more information on particular aspects of Great Lakes Water Levels, use the tabs above:
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Great Lakes water levels data constitute one of the longest high quality hydrometeorological data sets in North America with United States' reference gauge records beginning in 1860. Monitoring Great Lakes water levels is an important part of NOAA's mission to understand and predict changes in climate, weather, oceans, and coasts.
The map above shows the locations for the 53 NOAA/NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) water level stations on the Great Lakes and connecting channels (blue circles). These stations record a 3 minute average water level every 6 minutes. The data are also archived in hourly, daily, and monthly averages. To view their data, click on the NOAA/NOS/CO-OPS icon below.
The Canadian Hydrographic Service, part of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, monitors Great Lakes water levels on the Canadian shoreline at 33 monitoring stations (green circles above). To view their data, click on the DFO/CHS emblem below.
Lake-wide average levels are used in forecasting models and for monitoring the Great Lakes water budget. The Coordinating Committee on Great Lakes Basic Hydraulic and Hydrologic Data (from here on referred to as the Coordinating Committee), an international advisory group of government agencies, determines which water level stations are used to derive the lake-wide averages. These are shown on the map above. These data are available starting in 1918 because before that time, there were too few gauges to calculate a reasonable lake-wide average.
|Lake Superior||Lake Michigan-Huron||Lake St. Clair||Lake Erie||Lake Ontario|
|Duluth, MN||Ludington, Mackinaw City, Harbor Beach, MI||St. Clair Shores, MI||Toledo, Cleveland, Fairport, OH||Rochester, Oswego, NY|
|Marquette C.G., Pt Iroquois, MI||Milwaukee, WI||Belle River, ON||Port Stanley, Port Colborne, ON||Port Weller, Toronto, Cobourg, Kingston, ON|
|Michipicoten, Thunder Bay, ON||Thessalon, Tobermory, ON|
Each lake has one water level station that is designated as the master gauge, based on length of record and minimal relative vertical crustal movement. Current master gauge stations are shown on the map above and bolded on the lake-wide average table above.
NOAA water level observations are available at specific locations, as described on the Monitoring Network page or as a lake-wide average. These lake-wide averages are based on a select set of U.S. and Canadian station data as determined by the Coordinating Committee. The observation data shown below is from each lake's master gauge.
The links below and the pins on the map reveal plots of the current year's daily lake levels (blue) compared with last year's levels (black) and last year's annual average (dark red). The monthly averages are shown as a step plot through the daily averages. Plotted in the background are the coordinated (official) averages (green), record highs (cyan), and record lows (brown) per month as documented here along with additional water level data. Daily levels are from each lake's master gauge, produced by NOAA/NOS/CO-OPS.
IMPORTANT: Data are as up to date as possible. We check for updates daily from CO-OPS at 6:30 AM and 2:30 PM. Please refresh your browser and/or clear your browser's cache to ensure you have the latest available data. Additionally, please view the laboratory's Disclaimer and Intellectual Property Notice. Lastly, the latest, raw water level data (down to a six minute temporal resolution) are available on the NOAA Tides and Currents Water Level Station page. Note that those "raw data have not been subjected to the National Ocean Service's quality control or quality assurance procedures and do not meet the criteria and standards of official National Ocean Service data. They are released for limited public use as preliminary data to be used only with appropriate caution."
This map shows the locations of the master gauges for each lake. The charts below show measurements made at the stations. From left to right, the master gauge locations are: Marquette C.G. (Coast Guard), MI (Superior), Harbor Beach, MI (Michigan-Huron), St. Clair Shores, MI (St. Clair), Fairport, OH (Erie), Oswego, NY (Ontario).
The following are PNG image versions of the above plots.
|Superior Levels in Meters||Superior Levels in Feet|
|Michigan-Huron Levels in Meters||Michigan-Huron Levels in Feet|
|St. Clair Levels in Meters||St. Clair Levels in Feet|
|Erie Levels in Meters||Erie Levels in Feet|
|Ontario Levels in Meters||Ontario Levels in Feet|
The water levels of the Great Lakes fluctuate at different time scales to different forces. Very short-term water level changes, viewable in the interactive charts above, are caused by wind and storms. These short-term (hours to days) effects can be dramatic, and can cause the lake levels from one side of the lake to the other to vary by several meters for a short time. Each of the Great Lakes has an annual rise and fall cycle driven by the timing of precipitation, snow melt, and evaporation. In general, the lakes are at their lowest levels in the winter and highest levels in summer or fall. The range in annual rise is from 11 to 20 inches.
A hydrograph provides a way of seeing seasonal and decadal changes in the flow or discharge of a waterway. The hydrographs for the Great Lakes period of record (starting in 1860 or 1900) illustrate different water regimes over time.
The plots and data files below show the annual average water levels (based on lake-wide averages) for every year as well as the long-term mean level in meters, IGLD85. Click images to enlarge. To download the data, visit the Great Lakes Dashboard data download portal, where you may also read more information on how water levels data are derived
There is one official seasonal water level forecast for the Great Lakes, issued jointly by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Detroit District and Environment and Climate Change Canada's Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Regulation Office during the first week of each month. These agencies have operational authority through the International Joint Commission to oversee operation of the control structures on the St. Marys River (Lake Superior outlet; Corps-Detroit) and the St. Lawrence River (Lake Ontario outlet; Corps-Buffalo). Each agency utilizes a number of tools to produce their own 6-month forecast for Great Lakes lake-wide average water levels. They collaborate to issue one joint forecast each month, which is distributed widely. The seasonal forecast is also available on each agency's website:
NOAA GLERL has developed numerous models for forecasting seasonal hydrology in the Great Lakes. For more information, click here.
Long-term projections for future Great Lakes water levels are highly uncertain. Many studies have been published in the past several decades that use global climate models to assess the impact that future climates will have on Great Lakes water levels. Although a thorough understanding of each study will require reading the source material, the Great Lakes Dashboard allows us to put these different projections side by side for visual comparison. Open the Legend and Menu through the yellow button, select the research tab, and then the Multi-Decadal Level Forecasts tab to see these forecasts. Recent studies indicate there is little evidence that future water level variability will greatly exceed the historical range.
4840 S. State Rd.
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-9719
The upgraded Lake Erie Operational Forecast System (LEOFS) was jointly developed by NOAA/National Ocean Service's (NOS) Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) and Office of Coast Survey (OCS), the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL), the NOAA/National Weather Service's (NWS) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) National Central Operations (NCO), and the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth.
The NWS and NOS work together to run LEOFS operationally on NOAA's High Performance Computing System (HPCS). By running on NOAA's HPCS, LEOFS has direct access to National Weather Service operational meteorological products that are required for reliable operations.
LEOFS uses the Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). LEOFS provides users with nowcast (analyses of near present) and forecast guidance of water levels, currents and water temperature out to 120 hours, four times per day.
Short-term Water Levels and Meteorology are also available for other lakes and the Huron-Erie corridor, in their current experimental form, here: Great Lakes Coastal Forecast System.
4840 S. State Rd.
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-9719
4840 S. State Rd.
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-9719