AUBERT, E.J. Cross-panel considerations. IFYGL Bulletin 22:96-103 (1978).
AUBERT, E.J. Relevance of IFYGL. Verhandlugen-Internationale Vereinigung Fur Theoretishce und Angewandte Limnologie 20:317-323 (1978).
BENNETT, J.R. A model of Lake Ontario's circulation. IFYGL Bulletin 21:38-43 (1977).
BENNETT, J.R. A three-dimensional model of Lake Ontario's summer circulation. II. A diagnostic study. Journal of Physical Oceanography 8:1095-1103 (1978). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1978/19780001.pdf
Observations of Lake Ontario during the International Field Year for the Great Lakes are used to develop a three-dimensional numerical model for calculating temperature and current. The model has a variable grid resolution and a horizontal smoothing which filters out small-scale vertical motion caused by truncation error but has little effect on the strong currents of the coastal boundary layer. Resolution of the shore zones and reduced horizontal smoothing improve simulation of both long-term mean flow and current reversals due to low-frequency waves.
BOLSENGA, S.J. A technique for estimating monthly global radiation. Water Resources Bulletin 14:679-688 (1978).
A technique is presented for estimating monthly sums of global radiation from a combination of calculations of monthly cloudless global radiation, surface meteorological observations, and empirical equations relating sunshine to global radiation. The percent deviation of calculated from observed values is not negligible but is much less than errors obtained using extraterrestrial solar radiation sums. If monthly global radiation is estimated for areas other than the one area described here, the possible errors should be redetermined. Techniques to adapt the equations for other areas are discussed.
BOLSENGA, S.J. Lake-land precipitation relationships using northern Lake Michigan data. Journal of Applied Meteorology 16(11):1158-1164 (1977). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1977/19770003.pdf
Data from a network of recording precipitation gages, operated over a 5-year period on islands in Lake Michigan, provides the basis for the first monthly analysis of the relationship of lake to land precipitation conducted on the Great Lakes. Wide monthly fluctuations in lake to land relationships, previously masked by seasonal analysis using storage gages, are shown. An examination of the significance of the findings indicates that all but the largest differences are not statistically significant and that even the largest lake-land differences could possibly be attributed to gage errors.
BOLSENGA, S.J. Note. Spectral distribution of radiation in the northern Great Lakes during winter. Journal of Great Lakes Research 4(2):226-229 (1978). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1978/19780005.pdf
Measurements of global radiation in the spectral bands 285-2800, 535-2800, 630-2800 and 700-2800 nm were collected at the eastern end of Lake Superior during the period January through May. Significant differences are reported between the various spectral bands on a monthly as well as on a daily and hourly basis, due to varying degrees and types of cloudiness. Values of net and downward radiation for the same period are also provided.
BOLSENGA, S.J. On the use of multispectral radar to define certain characteristics of Great Lakes ice. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-17, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB-287-873/4GA) 11 pp. (1978). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/tech_reports/glerl-017/
Synoptic observations of Great Lakes ice cover are often severely hampered by weather conditions. It is possible to overcome these difficulties by using microwave radar. New areas of research using multispectral microwave radar are suggested. It seems probable that detailed structural characteristics of the Great Lakes ice cover can be described with an appropriately sophisticated radar system.
BOLSENGA, S.J. Photosynthetically active radiation transmission through ice. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-18, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB-288-463/3GA) 48 pp. (1978). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/tech_reports/glerl-018/
BOLSENGA, S.J. Short note. Preliminary observations on the daily variation of ice albedo. Journal of Glaciology 18(80):517-521 (1977).
A preliminary assessment of the daily variation of ice albedo in the 285-2800 nm range was made using field data collected over snow ice and refrozen slush. Significant diurnal variations could be attributed to changing low solar altitude under clear skies or to decay of the ice surface. Changes in albedo due to changes in cloud cover were observed for the most part to be slight. The measurements provide a base for a program of wider scope which would consider other types of ice under a variety of natural conditions.
BOYD, J.D., and B.J. EADIE. Evaluation of U.S. IFYGL chemical data at the master stations. IFYGL Bulletin 21:49-61 (1977).
BOYD, J.D., and B.J. EADIE. Temperature and dissolved oxygen data for Lake Ontario, 1972 (IFYGL). NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-21, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB-291-864/7GA) 213 pp. (1978). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/tech_reports/glerl-021/
DANEK, L.J., and J.H. SAYLOR. Measurements of the summer currents in Saginaw Bay, Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 3 (1-2):65-71 (1977). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1977/19770005.pdf
A combination of Lagrangian measurements and fixed current meter moorings were used during the summer of 1974 to determine the circulation patterns of Saginaw Bay. Because the bay is shallow, the water responds rapidly to wind changes. District circulation patterns were determined for a southwest wind and a northeast wind. Speeds measured in the inner bay were of the order of 7 cm s-1, whereas in the outer bay the speeds averaged closer to 11 cm s-1. A typical water exchange rate between the inner and outer bay for winds parallel to the axis of the bay is 3700 m3 s-1, but winds perpendicular to the axis of the bay cause little water to be exchanged. A comparison with the results of a numerical model for the bay indicates there is good agreement between the data and the simulation of the circulation in the inner bay. However, the agreement is poor in the outer bay, where specification of proper boundary conditions at the open mouth of the bay is important for meaningful model simulations.
DERECKI, J.A. Description of the method used by the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory to determine flows in the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers for the River Flow Subcommittee. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 16 pp. (1978). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1978/19780008.pdf
EADIE, B.J., R.L. CHAMBERS, J.M. MALCZYK, and A.L. LANGSTON. The effect of the Grand River spring runoff on Lake Michigan. International Joint Commission Technical Report :82 (1977).
EADIE, B.J., L.M. Jeffrey, and W.M. Sackett. Some observations on the stable carbon isotope composition of dissolved and particulate organic carbon in the marine environment. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 42:1265-1269 (1978).
d13CPCB compositions for 39 samples of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean Sea-Atlantic Ocean system, the South Pacific and Ross Sea are reported. Deep water values are similar with a mean of -21.8% attesting to the homogeneity of the oceanic DOC pool. In Antarctic waters, a 5% difference between DOC and particulate organic carbon (POC), with POC having values similar to modern plankton (d13CPDB approx -27%) supports the idea of the transient nature of POC as compared to DOC. Total, lipid, acid hydrolyzed, amino acid and residue fractions of POC are about 5,3,7,5 and 3% respectively, more negative a 2000 m water as compared to surface water samples from the Gulf of Mexico.
Gannon, J.E., and A. ROBERTSON. Development of checklists on Great Lakes biota. Journal of Great Lakes Research 4(1):104-105 (1978). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1978/19780004.pdf
Gannon, J.E., and R.S. Stemberger. Zooplankton (especially crustaceans and rotifers) as indicators of water quality. Transactions of the American Microscopic Society 97(1):16-35 (1978).
Zooplankters have potential value as assessors of tropic conditions. They respond quickly to environmental change and may be effective indicators of subtle alterations in water quality. Since most species are widely distributed in diverse environments, those with greatest value are ones limited to extremes of trophic lake types (i.e., oligotrophy, eutrophy, and dystrophy). In the wide range of ill-defined intermediate lake types, quantitative data on zooplankton community composition offers more potential than qualitative information on the presence or absence of certain species. The ratio of calanoid copepods to other major groups of zooplankton appears to be of value in identifying relative differences in trophic conditions. Multivariate analyses based on distribution and abundance of rotifer and crustacean species have proved useful in delineating major water masses of different trophic conditions in large lake systems. But caution must be exercised in establishing one-to-one causal relationships betweeen zooplaknton composition and trophic conditions since other factors, especially toxic pollutants and size-selective predation, may exert considerable influence on changes in the community composition.
GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Annual Report for the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, FY 1978. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 33 pp. (1978).
GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Detailed technical plan for the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 217 pp. (1978).
GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Technical plan for the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 58 pp. (1978).
HUANG, J.C.K. Numerical simulation studies of oceanic anomalies in the north Pacific Basin. I: The ocean model and the long-term mean state. Journal of Physical Oceanography 8:755-778 (1978). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1978/19780002.pdf
A three-dimensional, prognostic numerical model of the North Pacific Ocean, possessing an actual coastal configuration and ten layers (but constant depth), has been developed in order to show the physical nature of large-scale normal and abnormal characteristics of this ocean in response to various normal and anomalous seasonal meteorological conditions. Based on the simulated energetics, emphasis is given to the identification of the major physical processes and essential dynamic mechanisms responsible for the generation, evolution and dissipation of large-scale anomalies in the North Pacific Ocean. The model is based on time integrations of the finite-difference forms of the primitive equations. The oceanic circulation is driven by atmospheric forcing, namely, the surface wind stresses and the differential heating over the ocean. The flux form of numerical scheme for energy conservation and the rigid-lid approximation for filtering out the external inertia-gravity wave are used in the formulation. The model was spun-up for more than 60 years with the annual mean atmospheric data as the forcing boundary conditions. The long-term mean state in the model reveals the large-scale features of the circulation patterns and density distributions in the North Pacific Ocean. Three gyres, one large anticyclonic in the subtropical region and two smaller ones in the subarctic and, in the tropic regions, are well developed. The total transport near the western boundary reached 56 x 106 m3 s-1, which agrees reasonably well with the observed mean transport in the Kuroshio Current south of Japan. The equatorial currents, the Oyashio Current, the North Pacific Current, the Alaska Current and the California Current are simulated roughly in the model. There is upwelling along both the equator and the western boundary. Temperature and salinity distributions, except in high latitudes, compare well with observational data.
HUANG, J.C.K. Simulation study of the north Pacific Ocean. In Symposium on Modeling of Transport Mechanisms in Oceans and Lakes, Marine Sciences Directorate, Dept. of Fisheries and the Environment, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 21-34 (1977).
Numerical studies of large-scale motions in the North Pacific Ocean have been carried out using a three-dimensional, nonlinear dynamic model. The model is based on the thermohydrodynamic equations for an incompressible fluid contained in a basin with realistic boundary configurations. Observed atmospheric data such as the air temperature, the relative humidity and the wind, etc., are coupled with the predicted surface temperature and salinity to compute the heat, water and momentum fluxes across the air-sea interface from empirical formulas. The computed values are used as the constraining upper boundary conditions for the ocean model. Results show realistic circulation patterns and density structure as compared with observational data. Three gyre circulations, two cyclonic gyres, one in the subarctic region .and another in the tropic region, and one subtropic anticyclonic gyre, are well developed, similar to those observed synoptic patterns in the North Pacific Ocean and to those analytic diffusive solutions such as Munk's. The western intensification is clearly demonstrated. The maximum transport in the Kuroshio region reaches 58 Sverdrups which agrees quantitatively well with observations. The transports of the two cyclonic gyres reach 21 Sverdrups in the Oyashio region and 30 Sverdrups in the Phillipine Sea. All distinguishable currents, such as the Kuroshio, the west drift current, the California Current, and the Equatorial Current system, are prominently and easily identified. Dynamic analyses show that the Ekman type of balance is maintained in the surface layers and that there is a dominantly geostropic flow in the lower layers of the ocean.
JENKINS, C.F. The joint Canadian-U.S. Great Lakes research project, IFYGL. Ambio 7:98-105 (1978).
Kohberger, R.C., D. SCAVIA, and J.W. Wilkinson. A method for parameter sensitivity analysis in differential equation models. Water Resources Research 14:25-29 (1978).
A numerical method for analyzing global parameter sensitivity about a fixed point in parameter space for differential equation models is presented. The method is suitable for large-scale, multiresponse systems which may not be in steady state. By using a quadratic model, the relationship between several global response characteristics and parameter perturbations is examined. Sensitivity relationships are defined with both backward elimination regression model selection procedures and eigenvalue-eigenvector analyses. An example of the method is given using an ecosystem model consisting of 14 coupled differential equations.
LIU, P.C. A summary of IFYGL surface wave studies. IFYGL Bulletin 21:44-48 (1977).
LIU, P.C. Higher order wave spectra and stationarity of wind waves. Fifth Conference on Probability and Statistics, Las Vegas, NV, November 15-18, 1977. American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 254-259 (1977).
Various recent studies (e.g., Hasselmann et al., 1973; Longuet-Higgins, 1975; Fox, 1976) have consistently indicated that the growth process of wind waves is primarily associated with the nonlinear energy flux due to wave-wave interactions. The actual behavior of these interactions, however, is far from known at present. One of the first steps toward empirically assessing the wave-wave interactions, using wave data recorded from a single station, is to perform bispectral and trispectral analyses of the data (Hasselmann et al., 1962). We intend in this note to show that the higher order spectra are related to the nonlinear aspects of the mean energy of wind waves, assuming the data are stationary; to present examples of calcualted bispectra and trispectra; and to discuss the significance of nonstationarity in the actual data.
NALEPA, T.F. Freshwater macroinvertebrates. Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation 50:1301-1313 (1978).
PICKETT, R.L., and S. BERMICK. Observed resultant circulation of Lake Ontario. Limnology and Oceanography 22:1071-1076 (1977). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1977/19770006.pdf
Vector-averaged current data from June-October 1972 suggest that Lake Ontario's resultant circulation during the stratified period consists of a dominant counterclockwise gyre together with a small clockwise gyre in the northwest portion of the lake. Current speeds are lowest in spring and have maximum vertical shear in early autumn. Spectra comparing summer and winter winds and currents show more high frequency energy in summer winds and currents and more low frequency energy in winter winds and currents.
PINSAK, A.P., and G.K. Rodgers. Energy balance panel. IFYGL Bulletin 22:40-58 (1978).
POTOK, A.J. Analysis of the effect on Lake Ontario water levels of maintaining year-round safe navigation depths in the St. Lawrence River. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (1978).
QUINN, F.H. Analysis of Lake Superior regulation plan "1955 modified rule of 1949" for the period 1860-1900. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (1978).
This study was conducted to evaluate what the performance of the authorized Lake Superior regulation plan, the 1955 modification of the 1949 rule, would have been for the time period 1860-1900 if it had been in effect. To data, the analyses of Lake Superir regulatioan plans has been conducted for the time period subsequent to 1900. But the period 1860 to 1900 is also important as it contains both the Lake Superior record low and high water levels, which occurred in 1865 and 1876, respectively. The performance of regulatiaon plans for these critical periods is indicative of future performance under similar conditions.
QUINN, F.H. Hydrologic response model of the North American Great Lakes. Journal of Hydrology 37:295-307 (1978).
A hydrologic response model of the unregulated portion of the North American Great Lakes is presented for use in water resource and research studies. The hydrologic response model is a water quantity model encompassing Lakes Michigan, Huron, St. Clair and Erie and their connecting channels. The input parameters include overwater precipitation, tributary runoff, evaporation and diversion rates for each lake in the system and ice retardation rates and discharge equations for the connecting channels. The model outputs are end-of-month and monthly mean water levels for each lake in the system and the monthly flow rates in the connecting channels. The equation set for the model is composed of the continuity equations for each lake in the system. Rung-Kutta and Newton-Raphson algorithms were investigated for use in the model solution as well as second-order finite-difference technique designed by the author. The Newton-Raphson algorithm required approximately 40% less computer time than the other algorithms and was selected for inclusion in the solution. The model was calibrated by parameter optimization using an optimum gradient algorithm. The accuracy of the model as well as the sensitivity of the input parameters are analyzed and discussed.
QUINN, F.H., and G. den Hartog. Evaporation synthesis panel. IFYGL Bulletin 22:59-68 (1978).
RAO, D.B. A numerical procedure for computing resonant periods of natural water bodies. Proceedings, Symposium on Tsunamis, Baja California, Mexico, March 23-26, 1977. Marine Environmental Data Service, Manuscript Report Series No. 48, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 159-165 (1978).
Every natural water body is a mechanical, viscously damped oscillator possessing a spectrum of free modes of oscillation. The character of this spectrum is governed by the dimensions and morphometry of the basin, earth's rotation, and stratification. The response of the water body to an external force, whether it be due to atmospheric causes, a vibration of the bottom from an earthquake, or the propagation of tsunami waves into an inlet or bay, depends not only on the magnitude of the force but also on the proximity of the "forcing" frequencies to the "free" frequencies. If a forcing frequency is very close to or coincides with that of a free mode, one obtains a resonant response whose magnitude is controlled by the closeness of the two frequencies and the magnitude of frictional damping. In nature, the magnitude of frictional damping is almost always below the critical value so that the response of the water body is oscillatory. A brief description of a numerical procedure to compute the natural or resonant periods of an arbitrary water body is presented here for a completely closed system - that is, a lake. A few results from the application of this method to the Lake Huron system are given. In these computations, effects of frictional damping on the periods of oscillation are ignored since this effect is, in general, of higher order.
RAO, D.B. Free internal oscillations in a narrow, rotating rectangular basin. Symposium on Modeling of Transport Mechanisms in Oceans and Lakes, Marine Sciences Directorate, Manuscript Report Series No. 43, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 391-398 (1977).
Frequencies of free internal oscillations in a narrow rectangular basin containing two homogeneous fluids are calculated for various rotation rates. At a rotation rate appropriate to the Great Lakes, the frequency spectrum consists of two sets of modes, one with frequencies less than the intetial, and another with frequencies greater than inertial. The structures of the former set can be approximated by Kelvin waves, and those of the latter set by Poincare waves propagating in opposite directions.
Richards, T.L., and E.J. AUBERT. Introduction. IFYGL Bulletin 22:1-3 (1978).
ROBBINS, J.A. Chapter 9. Geochemical and geophysical applications of radioactive lead. In The Biogeochemistry of Lead in the Environment, J. O. Nriagu (ed.). Elsevier, Amsterdam, 285-393 (1978).
ROBERTSON, A., and C.F. JENKINS. The joint Canadian-American study of Lake Ontario. Ambio 7:107-112 (1978).
ROBERTSON, A., and D. SCAVIA. Ecosystem and water quality modeling during IFYGL. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 20:311-316 (1978).
During the IFYGL program measurements were made of the fluctuations of a large number of biological and chemical properties in Lake Ontario over a period of about one year. This very large data set provides a unique opportunity to develop and verify mathematical models of the Ontario ecosystem. Several groups of investigators seized this opportunity. This paper presents an overview of the present status of these efforts and attempts to illustrate the value of ecological modeling both as an aid to increased understanding of such a large ecosystem and as a tool to assist in management of this very valuable resource. Although a number of investigators were involved to some extent in ecological modeling during IFYGL, this overview will be restricted largely to the major features of the work of the two groups with the largest involvement. One of these, supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is at Manhattan College in Bronx, New York; the other, with which the authors are associated, is at the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
SAYLOR, J.H., and F.M. Boyce. Water movements panel. IFYGL Bulletin 22:69-84 (1978).
SCAVIA, D. Modeling in Water Management. Book review of Systems Approach to Water Management. Bioscience 27(10):688 (1977).
SLEATOR, F.E. Ice thickness and stratigraphy at nearshore locations on the Great Lakes (English units). NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-1-1, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB-295-671/2GA) 434 pp. (1978).
Ice-thickness and stratigraphic data have been collected under a program instituted by the U.S. Lake Survey during winter 1965-66. The program is continuing under the Great Lakes Enivronmental Research Laboratory. The data collection network is documented and the data collection and editing procedures are described. Edited data are presented in Standard (English) units. A version of the report using metric units is available.
SLEATOR, F.E. Ice thickness and stratigraphy at nearshore locations on the Great Lakes (metric units). NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-1-2, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB-297-121-6GA) 434 pp. (1978).
Ice-thickness and stratigraphic data have been collected under a program instituted by the U.S. Lake Survey during winter 1965-66. The program is continuing under the Great Lake Environmental Research Laboratory. The data collection network is documented and the data collection and editing procedures are described. Edited data are presented in metric units. A version of this report using standard (English) units is available.
Strong, A.E., and B.J. EADIE. Satellite observations of calcium carbonate precipitations in the Great Lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 23:877-887 (1978). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1978/19780007.pdf
Reflectance patterns apparently from calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation have been mapped in the Great Lakes using satellite multispectral imagery. The milky water phenomenon ("whiting") occurred regularly in summer and fall during the period studied, 1972-1975, in Lakes Ontario, Erie, and Michigan but not in Superior and Huron. In situ data provide nearly irrefutable evidence that these whitings are calcareous. They are attributed to supersaturation of CaCO3 during periods of thermal stratification and are most intense in the warmer areas of the lakes. The whitings are maximal several meters below the surface and are undoubtedly significant with respect to light transmission, affecting the euphotic zone and thereby photosynthetic production. They may serve as lakewide markers in synoptic analysis of large-scale epilimnial horizontal motions.
Thomas, N.A., T.F. NALEPA, and A. ROBERTSON. Biology-chemistry program during IFYGL. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 20:304-310 (1978).
During the IFYGL program an extensive effort was made to characterize some of the more important biological and chemical parameters of Lake Ontario. Sampling involved both lake-wide surveys and more intensive nearshore measurements. The purposes of the biology-chemistry program were: (1) to ascertain the present trophic status of the lake and delineate any problem areas, (2) to provide insight into some of the more important ecological processes of a large lake ecosystem, and (3) to provide a data set that could be used to develop and/or verify mathematical models. This summary includes only highlights of the results of this program and is not meant to be an exhaustive account of all the significant information gathered.
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