ASSEL, R.A. Lake Superior cooling season temperature climatology. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-58, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB86-110624/XAB) 45 pp. (1985). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/tech_reports/glerl-058/
A temperature climatology has been developed for the surface and ten 10-m layers along the normal ship route between the eastern and western ends of Lake Superior and for discrete areas along the ship route. Base period for the climatology includes winters 1973-76 and falls 1976-79. Daily average temperatures and extreme temperatures for the base period were calculated, and a six-wave Fourier equation fitted to the average temperature time series to define the temperature climatology.
ASSEL, R.A., C.R. Snider, and R. Lawrence. Comparison of 1983 Great Lakes weather and ice conditions with previous years. Monthly Weather Review 113:291-303 (1985). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1985/19850001.pdf
Winter 1983 was one of the mildest winters in the past 200 years. One result of the unusual winter weather was the mildest overall ice season on the Great Lakes since systematic observations of ice cover extent on the Lakes were initiated some 20-odd years ago. The 1983 winter developed during the peak of one of the most intense El Nino-Southern Oscillation events of this century. An extremely strong Aleution low that persisted most of the winter was associated with the mild temperatures in the United States. Monthly northern hemispheric circulation patterns were generally weak; no general long wave patterns were able to persist; and 700-mb heights were above normal. Annual maximum ice coverage on the Great Lakes was much below normal: Lake Superior--21% (normal is 75%), Lake Michigan--17% (normal is 45%), Lake Huron--36% (normal is 68%), Lake Erie--25% (normal is 90%), and Lake Ontario--less than 10% (normal is 24%). The economic impact of the below-normal ice cover included reduced U.S. Coast Guard ice breaking assistance to commercial vessels, reduced U.S. Coast Guard flood relief operations in connecting channels of the Great Lakes, and virtually no ice-related wlnter power losses at hydropower plants on the St. Marys, Niagara, and St. Lawrence Rivers.
ASSEL, R.A., C.R. Snider, and R. Lawrence. Great Lakes winter weather and ice conditions for 1982-83. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-55, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB85-165009/XAB) 43 pp. (1984). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/tech_reports/glerl-055/
Winter 1983 was one of the mildest winters in the past 200 years. One result of the unusual winter weather was the mildest overall ice season on the Great Lakes since systematic observations of ice cover extent on the Lakes were initiated some 20-odd years ago. The 1983 winter developed during the peak of one of the most intense El Nino-Southern Oscillation events of this century. An extremely strong Aleution low that persisted most of the winter was associated with the mild temperatures in the United States. Monthly northern hemispheric circulation patterns were generally weak; no general long wave patterns were able to persist; and 700-mb heights were above normal. Annual maximum ice coverage on the Great Lakes was much below normal: Lake Superior--21% (normal is 75%), Lake Michigan--17% (normal is 45%), Lake Huron--36% (normal is 68%), Lake Erie--25% (normal is 90%), and Lake Ontario--less than 10% (normal is 24%). The economic impact of the below-normal ice cover included reduced U.S. Coast Guard ice breaking assistance to commercial vessels, reduced U.S. Coast Guard flood relief operations in connecting channels of the Great Lakes, and virtually no ice-related winter power losses at hydropower plants on the St. Marys, Niagara, and St. Lawrence Rivers.
*AUBERT, E.J. Great Lakes basic research needs. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 14 pp. (1985).
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BOLSENGA, S.J. Nearshore Great Lakes ice thicknesses and stratigraphies. Proceedings, Great Lakes Ice Research Workshop, R.A. Assel and J.G. Lyon (eds.), Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 23-30 (1984).
BOLSENGA, S.J. Optical and stratigraphic properties of ice--Shortwave reflectance and transmittance of ice and snow. Proceedings, Great Lakes Ice Research Workshop, R.A. Assel and J.G. Lyon (eds.), Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 10-22 (1984).
BOLSENGA, S.J., and G.M. GREENE. Techniques to measure the spectral reflectance of ice. Proceedings, Ocean Optics VII, SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering, M.A. Blizard (ed.), Bellingham, WA, 384-391 (1984).
The system described here was designed to use two commercially available scanning spectroradiometers, a desk top calculator, and software to obtain simultaneous readings of incident and reflected radiation. To use such laboratory instruments in a hostile environment, it was necessary to develop support apparatus. A weatherized, portable module to house the data storage and readout apparatus; heated casings for spectroradiometers; power systems; and an over-ice instrument support boom are included. Problems with poor cosine response of the instruments were largely overcome. A process for using integrating spheres under both clear and overcast conditions is being developed. The system was specifically designed to measure the spectral reflectance of snow and ice in the Great lakes. Similar systems can be used for any field or laboratory application where incident flux might change during the spectroradiometer scan. Data collected showed large differences in the spectral reflectances of certain types of freshwater ice. However, for some ice types under certain atmospheric conditions, such a3 brash ice under clear or partly cloudy skies, it is difficult to determine a unique spectral signature since spectral reflectances are not only diurnally dependent but also site specific.
CROLEY, T.E.II. Computer reduction of arbitrary shapes to convex components. Proceedings, Tenth Canadian Congress of Applied Mechanics, H. Rasmussen (ed.), University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, June 2-3, 1985. D63-D64 (1985).
CROLEY, T.E.II. Forecasting Great Salt Lake levels. Proceedings, Problems and Prospects for Predicting Great Salt Lake Levels, P.A. Kay and H.F. Diaz (eds.), University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, March 26-28, 1985. Center for Public Affairs and Administration, 179-188 (1985).
The Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) developed a semi-automatic software package for making deterministic outlooks of basin moisture storage conditions, basin runoff, net lake supplies, and lake levels six full months into the future for large lakes. We designed the package especially for use on small computers with a standard FORTRAN-77 compiler, 5 MB of disk storage, and a minimum of CPU and memory resources. The package incorporates the GLERL Large Basin Runoff Model (LBRM) applied to each of the 20 to 40 subbasins about a lake and combined to represent the entire basin. Our near real-time data reduction system uses new algorithms to efficiently determine daily areal averages of meteorologic variables over each of the subbasins. The model and the data reduction system are combined into a useful, easy-to-use, semi-automatic package that consists of easily-supported modules for making near real-time forecasts of basin runoff and lake levels. Application of the runoff model and the forecast package to the Great Salt Lake in Utah involves refinement of several model concepts since the hydrology differs from the Laurentian Great Lakes, where the model was developed.
CROLEY, T.E., II, and H.C. HARTMANN. Lake Champlain water supply forecasting. GLERL Open File Report. Ann Arbor, MI, 56 pp. (1985).
The Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) developed a semi-automatic software package for making deterministic outlooks of basin moisture storage conditions, basin runoff, net lake supplies, and lake levels six full months into the future for large lakes. We designed the package especially for use on small computers with a standard FORTRAN-77 compiler, 5 MB of disk storage, and a minimum of CPU and memory resources. The package combines our Large Basin Runoff Model applications on each of the subbasins about a lake to represent the entire basin. Our near real-time data reduction system uses new algorithms to efficiently determine daily areal averages of meteorologic variables over each of the subbasins. The model and data reduction system are combined into a useful, easy-to-use, semi-automatic package that consists of easily-supported modules for making near real-time forecasts of basin runoff and lake levels. The modules' construction are presented in some detail; the use of these modules and their component computer programs also are detailed herein for use on the Lake Champlain Basin.
CROLEY, T.E., II, and H.C. HARTMANN. Large basin runoff forecasting on small computers. Proceedings, Specialty Conference on Hydraulics and Hydrology in the Small Computer Age, Buena Vista, FL, August 12-17, 1985. American Society of Civil Engineers, Hydrology Division, New York, NY, 7-12 (1985).
The Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) developed a semiautomatic software package for making deterministic outlooks of basin moisture storage conditions, basin runoff, net lake supplies, and lake levels six full months into the future for large lakes. We designed the package especially for use on small computers with a standard FORTRAN-77 compiler, 5 MB of disk storage, and a minimum of CPU and memory resources. The package incorporates the GLERL Large Basin Runoff Model (LBRM) applied to each of the 20 to 40 subbasins about a lake and combined to represent the entire basin. Our near real-time data reduction system uses new algorithms to efficiently determine daily areal averages of meteorologic variables over each of the subbasins. The model and the data reduction system are combined into a useful, easy-to-use, semiautomatic package that consists of easily-supported modules for making near real-time forecasts of basin runoff and lake levels. Although the package was developed for use on the Laurentian Great Lakes, we currently use it on Lakes Superior, Erie, and Champlain and can apply it in little more than the time it takes to receive climatologic records for an area.
CROLEY, T.E., II, and H.C. HARTMANN. Parameter calibration for the large basin runoff model. Proceedings, Fourth International Hydrology Symposium on Multivariate Analysis of Hydrologic Processes, Colorado State University, July 15-17, 1985. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 15 (1985).
The Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) has developed its Large Basin Runoff Model (LBRM) as an interdependent tank-cascade model which employs analytic solutions of climatologic considerations relevant for large watersheds. The mass balances for snowpack, upper and lower soil zones, groundwater, and surface water are coupled with physically-based concepts of linear reservoir storages, particle-area infiltration, complementary evapotranspiration and evapotranspiration opportunity based on available supply, and degree-day determinations of snowmelt and net supply. GLERL has used its LBRM in lake level forecast packages for Lake Superior, developed for the US Army Corps of Engineers (Detroit District), and for Lake Champlain, developed for the National Weather Service Northeast River Forecast Center. We apply the LBRM by determining the values of the 9 parameters used in the model, for each subbasin about a large lake, in an automated systematic search of the parameters space to minimize the sum-of-squared errors between actual and model outflow volumes. Synergistic relationships between paremeters enable error compensation and preclude unique optima in calibration. Howwever, we can demonstrate consistency between calibrations with different starting parameter sets. Also, since the model captures a "realism" in its structure, parameters have physical relevance; this relevance is used both in interpreting hydrology and in using hydrologic interpretions to set parameter values. Since the structure of the model is tied to the values of its parameters (tanks drop out as parameters approach their limits), the structure of the model changes within a calibration without the use of "threshold" parameters, thus avoiding discontinuities in the objective function in the parameter space. Applications to the subbasins about Lake Superior are summarized to illustrate these points and to indicate improvements.
CROLEY, T.E., II, and H.C. HARTMANN. Resolving Thiessen polygons. Journal of Hydrology 76:363-379 (1985).
We have developed an automated computer forecast package for Lake Superior, North America, that uses near real-time meteorological data to produce operational outlooks of basin runoff for improving lake-level regulations. The data collection network changes frequently as stations are added or dropped or fail to report from time to time. Therefore, forecasts depend on semi-automatic updating of meteorological data, requiring efficient computations of Thiessen weights. Various methods of computing Thiessen weights either have large computational overheads or provide unacceptable approximations. A new algorithm is presented for quickly computing Thiessen weights for all stations in a collection network for each of several watersheds of interest. The algorithm determines weights by finding first the edges of the Thiessen polygons and then the intersections of the polygons with watershed areas. It makes use of the fact that Thiessen polygons are convex sets of points. Considerable computational savings result by defining polygons by their edges instead of by their areal extent. Although comparisons of methods depend on particular network configurations, an example application to 18 stations covering 22 watersheds, represented on a 760 X 516-km map at 1-km 2 resolution (392,160 cells), requires only 10.0 CPU-seconds on a VAX 11/780 minicomputer (2 CPU-seconds on a CDC 750). This represents a 93% savings in computational time with no loss of accuracy when compared to conventional computer methods.
DERECKI, J.A. Lake St. Clair physical and hydraulic characteristics. GLERL Open File Report, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (1984).
EADIE, B.J., R.L. CHAMBERS, W.S. GARDNER, and G.L. BELL. Sediment trap studies in Lake Michigan: Resuspension and chemical fluxes in the southern basin. Journal of Great Lakes Research 10(3):307-321 (1984). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1984/19840004.pdf
The results of 4 years (1977-80) of sediment trap sample collection in the southern region of Lake Michigan are summarized and compared with water column and sediment characteristics. Mass flux data indicate strong seasonal patterns, with maximum fluxes recorded during the unstratified period. The large amount of winter resuspension is a mechanism which provides an intimate coupling of recent sediments and the water column. Also these trap study results indicate that there is a near-bottom (10-m-thick) benthic nepheloid layer whose chemical composition approaches that of deep water (fine grain) sediments. The amount of resuspended NaOH extractable phosphorus injected into the euphotic zone is estimated as approximately equal to the load of new phosphorus entering southern Lake Michigan. The role of resuspension in the cycling of organic carbon and contaminants associated with it appears to be important.
GARDNER, W.S., W.A. FREZ, E.A. Cichocki, and C.C. PARRISH. Micromethod for lipids in aquatic invertebrates. Limnology and Oceanography 30(5):1099-1105 (1985). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1985/19850009.pdf
Microtechniques with disposable, calibrated, capillary pipets were developed to measure amounts and classes of lipids in individual Lake Michigan benthic invertebrates. After lipids from an animal were partitioned into 100 ml of extraction solvent and purified, measured portions were weighed with an electrobalance. Lipids in some samples were also characterized by thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID). The extraction method was calibrated gravimetrically with cod liver oil and evaluated with a dry, ground fish sample. Lipid content was proportional (r = 0.99) to fish tissue dry weight over the range of 0.3-13 mg. TLC-FID measurements correlated well (r = 0.98) with gravimetric analysis for portions of extracts of individual amphipods (Pontoporeia hoyi) and oligochaetes (Stylodrilus heringianus). TLC-FID analysis indicated that <5% of the measured gravimetric weights was due to the inclusion of nonlipid material in the extracts.
GARDNER, W.S., T.F. NALEPA, W.A. Frez, E.A. Chichocki, and P.F. LANDRUM. Seasonal patterns in lipid content of Lake Michigan macroinvertebrates. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 42(11):1827-1832 (1985).
Lipids in several taxa of macroinvertebrates from Lake Michigan were determined seasonally to help define the role of these animals in transferring energy in the lake. Ranges of mean lipid content relative to ash-free dry weight (AFDW) throughout the year were as follows: amphipods (Pontoporeia hoyi), 21-54%; lumbriculid oligochaetes (Stylodrilus heringianus), 12-19%; tubificid oligochaetes, 9-22%; chironomid larvae, 9-39%; and Mysis relicta, 26-27%. A pattern of increasing lipid content during spring was observed for P. hoyi, chironomids,and M. relicta, but seasonal changes were not apparent for oligochaetes. ExcludingM. relicta, P. hoyi acounted for about 65% of the biomass and 70% of the energy contained in southern Lake Michigan benthic macroinvertebrates and may assimilate up to 30% of the total bioavailable organic detritus settling into the offshore hypolimnion. Calcuation of the predation loss rate (production rate) minus nonpredatory death rate) of P. hoyi indicated that about 13 000 callm-2 (2.1 g AFDWlm-2) of this amphipod may be consumed annual by fish and other predators in southern Lake Michigan.
Gauthier, R.L., R.A. Melloh, T.E. CROLEY, and H.C. HARTMANN. Application of multisensor observations to Great Lakes hydrologic forecast models. Proceedings, Eighteenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, Vol. 2, Paris, France, October 1-5, 1984. 1129-1140 (1985).
Forecasting of water levels throughout the Great Lakes system and regulation of outflows from Lake Superior have been adversely influenced by a lack of timely hydrometeorologic observations over the region. Of key concern have been the paucity of both spatial and temporal observations and the timely transmission of these data. Information on soil moisture and snow water equivalent conditions, exceedingly important variables affecting water supplies to the lakes, have largely been unavailable in the past. The Lake Superior Water Supply Study, a cooperative U.S. and Canadian pilot program for the total Great Lakes system, is described in this paper. This study incorporates integrated, multilevel, and multisensor observations of hydrometeorologic conditions into the development of dedicated hydrologic forecast models for the lake. Activities to upgrade point-station reporting networks using advanced in situ sensors and satellite data relay are described. Results of periodic airborne gamma radiation snowpack measurements are presented. Plans for future airborne soil moisture surveys are discussed. Future use of land resources and meteorologic satellite observations to monitor snowpack, soil moisture, and vegetative conditions over the basin is explored. The application of point, line, and areal observations to water supply forecast modeling for Lake Superior is described herein. The Large Basin Runoff Model, extended to forecast water supplies to Lake Superior, is being tested and/or modified to incorporate remotely sensed data in the future. Expected results and future program directions for data collection and modeling are presented.
GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Annual Report for the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, FY 1984. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 45 pp. (1984).
GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Publications by the staff of the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 99 pp. (1985).
GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Detailed technical plan for the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 323 pp. (1985).
GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. Technical plan for the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 75 pp. (1985).
*GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, The University of Michigan, and The University of Minnesota. Annual report to Ocean Assessment Division, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. In The Cycling of Toxic Organic Substances in the Great Lakes Ecosystem, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 125 pp. (1984).
GREENE, G.M. Sub-committee report: Summary of the discussion on ice characteristics. Proceedings, Great Lakes Ice Research Workshop, R.A. Assel and J.G. Lyon (eds.), Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 57-59 (1984).
GREENE, G.M., and S.I. Outcalt. A simulation model of river ice-cover thermodynamics. Cold Regions Science and Technology 10:251-262 (1985).
A model of ice cover thermodynamics was used to simulate ice growth and decay along the international section of the St. Lawrence River for winter 1980-81. This winter was chosen because of the exceptionally cold weather in December and January, and because of the abnormally warm air temperatures during the second half of February. At the air-ice interface, the model computes the surface energy transfer components and a resulting equilibrium surface temperature. At the lower boundary, an empirical algorith simulates the turbulent transfer of heat from the water. Within the ice, and implicit numerical solution to the general heat diffusion equation is used, permitting stable solutions for a variety of time intervals and node distances within the model. The model was used to simulate ice growth and decay at five sites characterized by their flow velocity, the date of ice-cover formation, and the water temperature regime. The model adequately represented growth rates at all five sites, but produced decay rates slower than those observed. Simulated breakup was 1-7 days later than observed, presumably because mechanical weakening of the ice was not taken into consideration. During the growth period, the model is far more sensitive to the values assigned to ice properties than it is to the error range in the meteorological variables. During the breakup period, the most sensitive boundary variable is water temperature.
International Great Lakes Technical Information Network Board. Hydraulics, hydrology, and systems evaluation. Appendix A of Great Lakes Hydrometeorologic and Hydraulic Data Needs. Report to the International Joint Commission. 192 pp. (1984).
LANDRUM, P.F., M.D. Reinhold, S.R. Nihart, and B.J. EADIE. Predicting the bioavailability of organic xenobiotics to Pontoporeia hoyi in the presence of humic and fulvic materials and natural dissolved organic matter. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 4:459-467 (1985).
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in water sorbs or binds organic xenobiotics, reducing the amount of compound that is "freely dissolved" and therefore the amount bioavailable to Pontoporeia hoyi. The apparent biological uptake rate constant for each compound is proportional to the inverse of the Aldrich humic acid concentration as a source of DOC. The log of the DOC concentration required to reduce the apparent uptake rate constant by 50% correlates well with the log of the partition coefficient to DOC determined by reverse-phase methodology for partition coefficients as low as 104. Further, the partitioning to DOC determined by reverse-phase methodology and from the toxicokinetics in P. hoyi yields partition coefficients similar to those of Aldrich humics measured as DOC and DOC from Lake Michigan interstitial waters. The partition coefficients determined by the two methods correlate well and only vary by a constant bias of a factor of approximately 3. Thus the partition coefficient determined by reverse-phase methodology can be used to predict the bioavailable concentration of organic compounds in water containing DOC for P. hoyi.
LESHKEVICH, G.A. Machine classification of freshwater ice types from Landsat-1 digital data using ice albedos as training sets. Remote Sensing of Environment 17:251-263 (1985).
A method has been used to convert ground-measured freshwater ice albedos to Landsat-1 digital numbers indirectly corrected for atmospheric attenuation and path radiance. The method has been tested by using the digital numbers as training sets to machine classify Landsat-1 digital ice cover data from a portion of northern Green Bay imaged on 13 February 1975. Results showed that the conversion algorithm produced digital numbers that, when used as training sets, classified approximately 50% of the test area. Differences between the classified test area and a previous machine classification of the scene, as well as the percentage of unclassified area caused by lack of data for some surface types, points to the need for a more comprehensive, well-documented library of signatures representing Great Lakes ice types.
LIU, P.C. In search of universal parametric correlations for wind waves. In The Ocean Surface, Y. Toba and H. Mitsuyasu (eds.). D. Reidel Publishing Company, The Netherlands, 171-178 (1985).
A large number of wave and wind data recorded from eight NOMAD buoys in the Great Lakes during 1981 were used to examine correlations of wind wave parameters. The results show no precise universal relations among the parameters. The only correlation that shows a universal behavior is that of nondimensional energy versus nondimensional peak-energy frequency.
LIU, P.C. On a design wave spectrum. Proceedings, 19th Coastal Engineering Conference, Houston, TX, September 3-7, 1984. American Society of Civil Engineers, 362-369 (1984).
We propose the use of generalized representation for acquiring a design wave spectrum. The generalized form, free from any predetermined coefficients and exponents, requires only significant wave height and average wave period as input for practical applications. The usefulness of this representation has been demonstrated with over 2000 measured deep-water wave spectra recorded from NOMAD buoys in the Great Lakes during 1981.
LIU, P.C. Representing frequency spectra for shallow water waves. Ocean Engineering 12(2):151-160 (1985).
Wind waves recorded in water from 1.4 to 3.8 m deep near the southeastern shore of Lake Erie during 1981 were used to compare two methods for representing wave spectra in shallow water. The results show that the semi-theoretical Wallops model, which requires total energy, peak energy frequency, and depth as parameters, provides fair agreement with observed spectra at the deeper stations but only marginal agreement in very shallow water. The general empirical model, which requires average frequency and energy density at the spectral peak as additional parameters, provides closer agreement with observed wave spectra for all depths.
LIU, P.C. Testing parametric correlations for wind waves in the Great Lakes. Journal of Great Lakes Research 11(4):478-491 (1985). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1985/19850008.pdf
A large number of wind and wave data recorded from eight NOMAD buoys in the Great Lakes during 1981 were used to examine correlations of wind wave parameters--nondimensional energy, nondimensional peak energy frequency, non-dimensional fetch, and significant wave slope, among others--in detail for their universality. The results show no precise universal relations among the parameters. The correlations show that all the points are clustered around a distinct region rather than a linear regression line. The variations within the region can be up to one order of magnitude. It has been found that there are no clear seasonal or atmospheric stability effects on the correlations. Distinctive correlations are exhibited by lower and higher wind speeds. High values of nondimensional energy are actually caused by low winds speeds rather than high waves. Individual episodes are examined. The correlations vary significantly among episodes. In practical applications, the only correlation that shows consistency and a smaller clustered region is that of nondimensional energy versus nondimensional peak energy frequency, which has been used successfully in numerical parametric wave model development.
McCORMICK, M.J., A.H. CLITES, and J.E. CAMPBELL. Water-tracking ability of satellite-tracked drifters in light winds. Marine Technology Society 19(3):12-17 (1985).
Experiments were conducted during 1983 and 1984 to estimate the water mass-locking capability of satellite-tracked drifters. The tests involved monitoring the spatial separation of the center of mass of a dye patch and the centroid of a cluster of drifters. Results showed the drifter and dye divergence to be well explained by a linear dependence between slippage velocity and wind speed for the light wind and small amplitude wave conditions that existed. The average slippage velocity was 0.51% of the wind speed. This was in close arrangement with elementary slippage theory1 and suggests that under similar conditions this theory should be equally valid for any drifting object.
MILLER, G.S., and J.H. SAYLOR. Currents and temperatures in Green Bay, Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 11(2):97-109 (1985). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1985/19850004.pdf
Current velocities and water temperatures were measured in the four main passages between Green Bay and Lake Michigan and at several sites within the bay during summer and fall 1977. Monthly resultant currents indicate there is anticlockwise circulation in the bay during dominant southwesterly wind and a reversal of this pattern during episodes of northeasterly wind. It is common for two layers to flow through the mouth of the bay in opposite directions during the stratified season. Cold hypolimnetic lake water entering through the mouth and extending far into the bay maintains stratification and promotes flushing. The effects of resonance of forced and free long wave disturbances are prominent in current records; these oscillations are coherent and in phase across the mouth.
NALEPA, T.F. Occurrence of a resting stage in cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepods in nearshore Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 11(1):59-66 (1985). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1985/19850003.pdf
Temporal and spatial differences in the abundance of dormant harpacticoid and cyclopoid copepods in a nearshore area of southeastern Lake Michigan are described. Core samples were taken at three depths (11, 17, and 23 m) at monthly intervals from May to November 1976-79. All dormant harpacticoids were Canthocamptus robertcokeri or Canthocamptus staphylinoides, and all dormant cyclopoids were stage IV copepodids, likely Diacyclops thomasi. The percentage of Canthocamptus and copepodids IV found in the resting state decline dramatically with increased sampling depth. Dormant Canthocamptus were most abundant in late summer/fall in each of the four sampling years. During this period, usually over 50% of all Canthocamptus were found in the dormant conditions. Dormant cyclopoids were most abundant between June and September, but exact seasonal patterns varied from year to year. Factors initiating the dormant condition are not clear, but water temperatures and day length may be important environmental cures. Some of the spatial and year-to-year differences in the proportion of dormant individuals appeared related to variations in the amount of surface detritus. This is the first report of a resting stage in the life cycle of cyclopoids in the Great Lakes.
NALEPA, T.F., M.A. QUIGLEY, K.F. CHILDS, J.M. GAUVIN, T.S. HEATLIE, M.P. PARKER, and L. VANOVER. Macrobenthos of southern Lake Michigan, 1980-81. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-28, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB86-119625/XAB) 273 pp. (1985).
This report presents detailed methods and basic results of a benthic survey designed to determine long-term trends in the macrobenthos of southern Lake Michigan. Forty stations were sampled in late May/early June, July, and September of 1980 and 1981. Each of the forty stations represented a location that was sampled in one of several earlier surveys. At each station, three replicate samples were generally taken with both a Peterson and a Ponar grab sampler. The benthic data for each sampling date and station are presented in a table giving (1) number of each taxa found in each replicate sample, (2) mean abundance determined separately for each type of sampler, (3) ash-free dry weight found in each replicate sample for the major taxa, and 94) mean ash-free dry weight for the major taxa.
QUIGLEY, M.A., and J.A. ROBBINS. Silica regeneration processes in nearshore southern Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 10:383-392 (1984). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1984/19840005.pdf
The seasonal depletion of dissolved silica to levels that limit diatom production is particularly critical in Lake Michigan's nearshore zone where diatom biomass is greatest, and where silica regeneration from sediments is not well-understood. In our study, intact, medium-fine sand cores, collected from an 11 m deep site in nearshore Lake Michigan During July-August 1980, released soluble reactive silica (SRS) at a mean rate of 2,707 +/- 122 (SE) mg Si cm-2 yr-1 when incubated in darkness and at 12oC. This measured SRS release was greater than a diffusive flux (270 +/- 49 (90% C.I.) mg Si cm-2 yr-1) estimated from SRS pore water profiles and physical sediment properties. SRS release from individual cores was not correlated with abundance of most macroinvertebrates (chironomids, pisidiid clams, or oligochaetes). However, a significant (P< 0.05) and inverse relationship between SRS release and Pontoporeia hoyi densities implied that amphipods suppressed SRS release through mixing and burial of a surficial floc layer, where most dissolution of biogenic silica occurs. Moreover, SRS release rates measured from our coarse-grained nearshore sediments were comparable to rates reported for fine-grained offshore material and further implicate dissolution of surficial biogenic silica as the source of remineralized SRS. Because nearshore areas of Lake Michigan undergo strong seasonal variations in temperature and diatom production, and because significant riverine silica inputs exist, we cannot extrapolate our results on a lakewide, or season-long basis. The data, however, strongly imply that nearshore sediments are an important participant in the Lake Michigan silica cycle.
QUINN, F.H. Editorial. Journal of Great Lakes Research 11(1):1 (1985). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1985/19850002.pdf
QUINN, F.H. Great Lakes levels setting new record highs. Twine Line 7(3):1 (1985).
ROBBINS, J.A. Great Lakes regional fallout source functions. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-56, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI (PB85-237162/XAB) 22 pp. (1985). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/tech_reports/glerl-056/
Atmospheric concentrations and rates of deposition of long-lived fallout radionuclides (90Sr, 137Cs, and 239+240Pu) have been measured extensively and routinely over the past 30 years at numerous sites in the Great Lakes Region. The data set provides the most accurate and complete record of any contaminant entering the lakes and, when combined with carefully measured lake responses, adds greatly to our understanding of how the system recovers. In this report all known regional fallout data through the 1980's are combined to give the most accurate estimate of the rates of deposition of the three nuclides over the drainage basin and open lake. A previously validated model (PWW) used to relate atmospheric deposition rates given mean monthly atmospheric concentrations and monthly precipitation is calibrated using mean monthly atmospheric concentration and fallout collector data from Argonne National Laboratory. The model is then used to infer lake and basin deposition based on mean regional atmospheric concentrations and mean precipitation extrapolated from a network of more than 2,000 precipitation sampling sites. Results are given in terms of monthly deposition rates for each lake and its drainage basin for the three nuclides. Correction is make for increased plutonium production relative to the other two nuclides prior to 1960. Comparison between collector-based deposition rates (supplied in an accompanying table) and actual integrated deposition on undisturbed soils shows that table values must be increased by about 20% to reproduce actual loadings.
ROBBINS, J.A., K. Husby-Coupland, and D.S. White. Precise radiotracer measurement of the rate of sediment reworking by Stylodrilus heringianus and the effects of variable dissolved oxygen concentrations. Journal of Great Lakes Research 10:335-347 (1984). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1984/19840007.pdf
A radiotracer method is used to determine the rate of sediment reworking by the worm, Stylodrilus heringianus, an organism common in profundal sediments of the Great Lakes. A submillimeter layer of sediment labeled with gamma-emitting cesium-137 is added to the surface of worm-inoculated sediments contained in cells of rectangular cross-section placed in an insulated aquarium (10oC). This layer, progressively buried by the conveyor belt feeding action of the worms, is located by scanning the cell with a well-collimated detector mounted on a hydraulically actuated elevator. Precision in locating the marked layer is greatly enhanced by Gaussian profile analysis developed in this study. Relative uncertainties in location of less than 0.01 cm allow reworking rates as low as 10-3 cm/hr to be determined in 1 to 2 days. The effect of variable dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations on sediment reworking rates was determined by adjusting the relative proportions of N2 and O2 introduced into the aquarium through a continuous bubbler system. In a cell subject to gradual reductions in D.O. (about 1 mg/L every 50 hours) from saturation concentration 10.6 mg/L), sediment reworking rates remained virtually constant down to 1 mg/L. Below this value, the rate decreased, approaching zero at 0.2 mg/L. On increasing D.O. values above about 4 mg/L, reworking returned to the initial rate. Gradual decreases in D.O. induced a reversible dormant mode in these organisms. In cells subject to coarse D.O. changes (3.7 to 8.8 mg/L per step), reworking stopped at around 4 to 5 mg/L and did not resume following reinstatement of saturation values for up to 18 days. In all cases more than 70% of worms were alive at the end of the experiment. This study illustrates the potential of the gamma scan system for quantitative behavioral bioassay of the interactions of zoobenthos with altered sedimentary environments.
ROBERTSON, A. Zooplankton. In Encyclopedia of Environmental Science, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 700-701 (1974).
*SAYLOR, J.H., and G.S. MILLER. Lake physics. In Synopsis of Lake Erie Water Quality, D. Rathke and C.J. Edwards (eds.). International Joint Commission, Great Lakes Regional Office, Windsor ON, (1984).
SAYLOR, J.H., and G.S. MILLER. Lake physics. In A Review of Trends in Lake Erie Water Quality with Emphasis on the 1978-1979 Intensive Survey, D.E. Rathke and C.J. Edwards (eds.). Center for Lake Erie Research, Columbus, OH, 9-27 (1985).
The Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory of the NOAA in cooperation with the Natiaonal Water Research Institute (NWRI) of the Canada Centre for Inland Waters (CCIW) performed an extensive study of physical properties in Lake Erie from May 1979 through June 1980. As detailed in Saylor and Miller (1983), a lake-scale grid of moorings was deployed by NOAA to study the whole-basin responses to meteorological forces. In addition to this NOAA grid, a more concentrated set of instrument clusters were designed to study in detail certain specific physical processes. These instruments were deployed by CCIW in several areas throughout the lake. This chapter presents an overview of lake-scale thermal variations and currents to provide background for the discussions of chemical and biological distributions which follow. These studies have demonstrated vital linkages of water quality distributions and trends with lake physics.
VANDERPLOEG, H.A., and G.-A Paffenhofer. Modes of algal capture by the freshwater copepod Diaptomus sicilis and their relation to food-size selection. Limnology and Oceanography 30(4):871-885 (1985). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1985/19850010.pdf
High-speed motion pictures (500 frames s-1) of tethered Diaptomus sicilis feeding in suspensions of Chlamydomonas spp. of three different sizes at three different concentrations (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mm3 liter-1), showed two modes of feeding: a passive mode in which algae flowed into the space between the left and right second maxillae and an active mode in which the second maxillae or second maxillae plus maxilliped made large amplitude flaps to bring in the cell. Cells </=4 mm in diameter were always captured passively, and cells >/=6 mm were captured both actively and passively. Active captures were 18% of total captures for the medium-sized (6 mm) algae and 36% for the large (12 mm) algae. During passive captures, algae usually flowed through the space between the left and right second maxillae rather than being caught on the setules; thus, the leaky-sieve model of particle retention does not apply for passive captures by D. sicilis. Except for brief interruptions to actively capture a large alga nearby, the second maxillae of D. sicilis oscillated continuously at low amplitude at all times during feeding, in marked contrast to the marine copepods Eucalanus and Paracalanus that vibrated their second maxillae to enhance capture in monocultures of small algae but not large algae. These observations explained both the shape of the curve of selectivity vs. particle size forD. sicilis and its relative invariance. Analyses of feeding mechanisms and the water currents around Diaptomus showed that, in contrast to Eucalanus and Paracalanus, Diaptomus is specialized for capturing small particles, which may be a more important food in freshwater than in marine environments.
VANDERPLOEG, H.A., D. SCAVIA, and J.R. LIEBIG. Feeding rate of Diaptomus sicilis and its relation to selectivity and effective food concentration in algal mixtures and in Lake Michigan. Journal of Plankton Research 6:919-941 (1984). https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/1984/19840015.pdf
The concept of effective food concentration (EFC), a means of predicting food consumption from selectivity and food concentration data, is explained, tested, and applied to understanding food consumption by the freshwater copepod Diaptomus sicilis on mixtures of algae of different sizes and on Lake Michigan seston. Experiments on mixtures of different sized Chlamydomonas spp. showed that selection (W') was an invariant function of particle size when the algae were counted microscopically. When the Coulter counter was used, a more variable pattern of selectivity -- similar to the peak tracking response reported by some investigators -- was obtained. This was due to bias of zooplankton-produced particles. Size-selective selectivity coefficients (W') were used to weight the food concentration in each size category and the weighted values summed to give EFC. Food consumption in experiments with seston and with cultured algae was better described by EFC than by total food concentration (TFC), the unweighted sum. Moreover, use of EFC diminished the magnitude of the apparent threshold concentration required for feeding to commence. Although selectivity in algal mixtures and lake seston was approximately the same, the food consumption versus EFC curve saturated more quickly for the algal mixtures than for the lake seston. Since expression of food concentration as EFC allowed direct comparison of experiments having different particle-size spectra food, we concluded the difference resulted from the lower food quality of lake seston, that is, its lower digestibility and sensory quality for zooplankton capture.
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